Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения - страница 9


I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The station master said that no trains had arrived at the station during the night because of the heavy snowstorm in the mountains. 2. The business day was in high gear: the mail was being looked through, the documents were being typed, letters were being answered, talks were being hold. 3. The reason for the freight train derailment has not been found yet. 4. The program of railway reforms is being implemented now in Russia. Under this program suburban and regional passenger services will be financed from local budgets. At the same time the government has promised to fund inter-city passenger service.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. When we (to come – Past Indefinite Active) to the railway station, all tickets (to sell out – Past Perfect Passive) already. 2. During the last 5 years traffic on Britain’s roads (to increase – Present Perfect Active) by 27 per cent. 3. Evidently the car (to travel – Past Continuous Active) at a high speed so at this steep turn the crash (to be – Past Indefinite Active) inevitable. 4. Computers (to use – Present Continuous Passive) more and more extensively in the world today. 5. Train fares (to increase – Present Perfect Passive) several times during the past year.

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого (Active or Passive).

1. A two-speed escalator (has developed; has been developed) in this design bureau. 2. The wooden supports for rails (call; are called) the sleepers. 3. A new railway underground line (is constructing; is being constructed) in our city. One of Metro stations (will build; will be build) near my house. 4. Permanent way (consists; is consisted) of rails, sleepers and ballast. 5. The workers (were inspecting; were being inspected) carefully the carriages before the train departure.

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. If you are traveling by air, you mustn’t carry anything in your luggage that can be used as a weapon, such as a knife or a pair of scissors. 2. The driver of the vehicle may be fined by the police officer if he violates the traffic rules or drives under the influence of alcohol. 3. You should not ride a motorbike without a helmet. 4. We could hardly start the engine at –30° C. 5. What can you do while traveling by train? You can read a novel or do a crossword puzzle, you can just stare out of the window or talk to your fellow-traveler, you can sit back and listen to the clicking of the carriage over the rails.

V. Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to begin; 2) to heat; 3) to improve; 4) to fall; 5) to meet; 6) to suggest; 7) to run; 8) to calculate; 9) to write; 10) to weigh; 11) to link; 12) to implement; 13) to grow; 14) to choose; 15) to design.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Having used alloys instead of steel the designers reduced the cost of the device. 2. Trains arrivals and departures are announced on a loudspeaker, it is very convenient for people meeting somebody or seeing somebody off. 3. Chinese Railways lifted the maximum speed of passenger services to 140 km/h on seven key routes radiating from Beijing (Пекин). 4. Driving a car in the rush hours, you must be very attentive because traffic is very heavy. 5. The first Metro trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal, filling the tunnels with smoke.

VII. Образуйте Participle II oт глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) an engine (to invent) by R. Diesel; 2) the (to approve) plan; 3) a bag (to leave) in the bus; 4) (to receive) information; 5) a new supercomputer (to develop) by Japanese engineers; 6) (to burn) gas; 7) the (to insure) car; 8) (to increase) volume of traffic; 9) a (to force) landing; 10) a (to work out) project.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The things left behind by passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property Office. 2. When upgraded, the railway bridge will be used for the movement of heavy freight trains. 3. The first Siemens’s electric loco built in 1879 was so small that the driver straddled it like a horse but it could haul a train with 30 passengers. 4. During the test run the steam locomotive produced by Peter Cooper raced against a coach pulled by a horse. 5. In some European countries tank wagons made of reinforced plastics are used for conveyance of wine and fruit juices.

IX. Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The experiments were put off after the accident for an indefinite time. 2. Now all railways have a standard gauge. 3. The Railway International Journal publishes a lot of articles about the construction of high-speed railways all over the world. 4. We were waiting for the train arrival on the platform. 5. She left her driving license at home. 6. He has been offered ₤350 for his old car, but its price is much higher. 7. Passengers should be at the station at least thirty minutes before boarding the train if they need to buy tickets.

X. Перепишите и переведите текст.


The underground railway is the quickest, safest, most reliable and comfortable means of city’s transport. Metro can solve the problems of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities as well as the problems of traffic jams, air contamination and noise.

But from the technical point of view the underground railway system is very expensive and complicated constructional work. This system includes subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines. Ground based lines are usually used at the terminations of the underground railways. Besides the underground and surface structures involve stations, tunnels, escalators, underpasses, ventilation and sanitary engineering as well as a power supply system.

The permanent way of underground railways differs from the usual railway track. The sleepers are only 0.9 m long. They are shorter than those of the railroad track which are 2.7 m long. The sleepers of the usual track are laid upon ballast made of broken stone or other materials. The crossties of the underground railway are laid directly on concrete base. It is more expensive but keeps air free from dust. If the ballast were made of slag, gravel, sand or even broken stone, the train would be followed by the dust clouds.

All Metro trains are powered by electricity. The current is obtained from the third rail. This contact rail is laid along the whole track and transmits the direct current of 825 volts to the train electromotor through the pantograph.

The Underground carrying capacity depends on the number of coaches which ranges from 2 to 8 per train and the frequency of train running which ranges from 80 seconds to 8 minutes.

Nowadays there are underground railways in 80 cities all over the world. The first Metro railways lines were constructed in London in 1863. It is the oldest but not the longest Underground. New York was the second city to build the subway. The first track was laid in 1868 and nowadays it is the longest metro in the world. The shortest metro line was constructed in Turkey. Its length is only 600 m but Istanbul is very proud of the metropolitan means of traffic.

XI. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Is the underground railway the quickest means of transport?

2. Can Metro solve the problem of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities?

3. Does the underground railway system include only subsurface lines?

4. Are the sleepers of the underground railway laid on concrete base?

5. Do the Metro trains always consist of 4 coaches?

6. Are there underground railways in 80 cities all over the world?

7. Was London the second city to build the Metro?

8. Did New York construct its Underground in 1963?

9. Do you know where the shortest railway line in the world is?

10. Have metro lines been already constructed in all large cities all over the world?

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